Luban is situated in the south-western part of Poland in the valley of river Kwisa, on the border of two historical regions: Upper Lusatia and Lower Silesia. It is a part of Lowersilesian province. Border crossing points with Germany in Zgorzelec and Jedrzychowice are located in the distance of 20 and 22 km respectively, whereas the border crossing points with the Czech Republic in Miloszow and Zawidow in the distance of 15 and 22 km.
The area of the town covers 16,12 sq km. It has 21.178 inhabitants (actual data for 25.08.2015 r.). Due to its location Luban is an important commercial and touristic node. Many important communication routes cross the town: national road no. 30 towards Zgorzelec (border with Germany) and Jelenia Gora, regional road no. 357 towards Sulikow and Zawidow (border with the Czech Republic) and regional road no. 393 towards Lesna (border crossing point in Miloszow with the Czech Republic). Regional road no. 357 leads towards Boleslawiec and Wroclaw, whereas regional road no. 296 towards Zielona Gora.